Oil is a homogeneous mixture of organic compounds, primarily hydrocarbons insoluble in water.
It is also known as crude oil or just crude.
It occurs in the interior of the Earth, transforming the accumulated organic matter in sediments of the geologic past and may accumulate in natural geological traps, from which is extracted by drilling wells.
Under normal conditions a bituminous is liquid that can present great variation in various parameters like color and viscosity. (from yellow and slightly viscous liquids such as gasoline to black so viscous that it barely flows)density (from 0.66 g/ml and 0.95 g/ml), heat capacity, etc..
These variations are due to the variety of concentrations of hydrocarbons that make up the mix.
It is a renewable natural not resource and is also currently the main source of energy in developed countries.
The liquid oil layers may occur associated with natural gas in fields that have been buried for millions of years, covered by the upper strata of the earth's crust.
In the United States, it is common to measure the volume of liquid oil in barrels (of 42 U.S. gallons, equivalent to 158.987294928 liters) and gas volumes in cubic feet (equivalent to 28.316846592 liters), in other regions both volumes are measured in meters cubic
Because of the fundamental importance for the manufacturing industry and transport, oil price increase may be responsible for large variations in local economies and causes a strong impact on the global economy..
A petroleum derivative, is a product processed in a refinery, using oil as raw material..
According to crude composition and demand, refineries can produce different oil products.
Most of the oil is used as raw material for energy, such as gasoline.
Also produce chemicals that can be used in processes to produce plastic and/or other useful materials.
Because the oil containing 2% of sulfur, also obtained large amounts of it. Hydrogen and carbon in the form of petroleum coke can also be produced as derivatives of oil.
The hydrogen produced is normally used as an intermediate for other processes such as hydrocracking and hydrodesulfurization.